On 14 August 2008, Reykjavik University held one of its Innovative Teaching Days for 2008. The programme featured two invited presentations by two academics from MIT: Janet Rankin (http://web.mit.edu/tll/about-
The first presentation was delivered by Janet Rankin, who started by asking the question:
Janet Ranking stressed that every course/lecture must have a road map (a clear outline) and well defined objectives (clear results). She also said that the increasing impact of cognitive learning theories on teaching is producing a shift towards student-centred, active learning.
Message 1: When teaching try to raise the students' awareness of themselves as learners.
Message 2: When planning a course and each of its components, consider the learning objectives for your students.
Ask yourself: "What promotes learning by the students?" Typical answers are:
- Engagement with questions.
- Active learning opportunities.
- Cognitive apprenticeship (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_apprenticeship).
Involve the students in peer instruction. This involves making them solve problems, listen critically to solutions by their peers, evaluate the solutions, and argue about their appropriateness.
A useful tip: After each lecture/session make the student write down on a card the most confusing aspect of the meeting. Use the answers to reflect on what you can do to improve.
See this booklet for more information: http://web.mit.edu/tll/
The second talk of the day was delivered by Donald Sadoway, who has been professor at MIT since 1992. (Personal comment: For what it's worth I have to say that this was one of the most entertaining presentations about any topic I have heard in my career. I have no doubt that he is indeed the star teacher the announcement claimed he was and that students flock to his classes in large numbers.)
Donald Sadoway's mission in teaching is to invigorate engineering education because it is typically boring! He stated right at the beginning that we need to make universities a better environment for teachers. We need to give our students the foundations that they will need to be successful in our future world that will be dominated by bio, nano and info sciences. (Ask yourself: How much of these foundational sciences do our students see in our degree courses right now?)
As a running example, Donald Sadoway mentioned his experience with the course 3.091 at MIT. This course
- lays the foundation for more chemistry,
- prepares students for their majors, and
- provides scientific and technical literacy.
- When planning a course, begin with a clean slate. If you start by looking at what was there before or at a typical book, you will soon realize that there is too much material to be covered.
- Less is actually better!
- When selecting the material to be covered in the course, divide it into three categories (of decreasing order of importance):
- What should the students recall from the course on their death bed?
- What knowledge would be useful, but is not vital?
- And what would be knowledge from the course they might recite at a cocktail party to show they have some advanced knowledge?
To evaluate student performance in the course and keep track of student progress, Donald Sadoway uses weekly 10-minute quizzes, monthly tests (with one A4 aid sheet) and a final exam, which he calls a celebration for final festival. The final celebration gives the student time to reflect on what they have learned and is an extra opportunity for improving their learning skills and mastery of the material. The final celebration should be a suitably challenging learning experience since, as Sadoway put it, "no pressure, no diamonds".
Each concept in the course is illustrated by suitable examples providing context. (See above.) Sadoway always offers references to history of science, music, arts and whatever else provides context and makes the material entertaining and catchy. He also uses parts of the lectures to touch upon the theme "chemistry and the world around us".
Note that the course has no laboratory component since there is no lab that can hold 600 students. To address this "shortcoming", Sadoway asked himself: "So, what is important?" The answer he came up with is:
- Data analysis,
- Communication, and
He encourages students to read the classics, and use that the university or departmental library to go back to the articles that shaped our understanding of a field. He also runs themes within a course. Examples of such themes are:
- Women in science (studies of abuse),
- History, society and solid state chemistry (he proposed a course on this topic, but his proposal died because the faculty of history did not want to give students credits for the course since it was taught by an engineer and was considered an engineering class).
He said that he has reached the following conclusion:
After all, if I may quote him again,
Sadoway said that a good university education should give our students a methodology for developing solutions to problems. On the other had, a great university education should provide them with a methodology for developing methodologies!
You can hear Sadoway present this course on YouTube at
and you can watch him deliver his first lecture in the course at
You can also read about Sadoway's involvement in the "Picturing to Learn" programme at MIT at
More on the programme is available at
I encourage you to look at the short movie "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" conceived and directed by my Danish colleague Claus Brabrand. Info on the movie, which describes John Biggs' constructive alignment, is available at http://www.daimi.au.dk/~
Aalborg University is a world leader in problem-based learning. You can read about problem-based learning at Aalborg University, with special emphasis on its implementation in engineering education, at http://www.ucpbl.org/